3 Packaging Waste Treatment Methods
Plastic packaging waste belongs to the MSW category, and its disposal methods mainly include landfill, incineration, and recycling, as shown in Figure 1.
In the 1990s, the management of MSWs in various countries in the world had different treatment methods due to different national conditions. However, the major developed countries were limited to historical conditions and technical and economic levels in the past. They were mainly landfilled and incinerated, such as the United States. 72% buried, 13% incinerated, 17% recycled, 53%, 26%, and 21% in France, and 10%, 30%, and 20% in Japan, respectively. Most countries in Europe use incineration, such as end soil. 80%, Denmark 75%, Germany 50%. In the United Kingdom, 83% of cities use landfills. The combination of biodegradable plastics developed in recent years and composting is promoting the progress of MSW processing technology and has attracted world attention.
Since the end of the last century, with the increasingly tense resources and energy sources and the increasing environmental pollution, how to effectively and rationally utilize resources and conserve energy, and strengthening the handling and recycling of MSW has become a global concern. All countries have taken strengthening their efforts from the source, reducing the amount of waste generated and the reuse of resources as an important strategy. In order to protect the ecological environment, strengthen the use of resources, and treat wastes, the European Union has taken the lead in formulating the order of waste and the highest guiding tactics as the guiding principles for the implementation of relevant laws in EU countries. This principle also serves as a good guide for MSW processing in countries around the world.
3.1 Priority of Waste Disposal 1 Reduce
3 Recycling (Recyele, Including Materials, Chemicals, Fertilizer Recycling)
4 Incineration heat recovery
5 Landfill treatment
3.2 Principles of Waste Disposal â€¢ Guiding Principles for the Recycling of Packaging Materials â€“ From 1994 onwards, the recycling rate of various types of packaging materials waste must reach 25 to 40% within 8 years, and the ratio of incineration and recovery heat energy must reach 50~65. %.
Disposal Waste Disposal Indications: In recent years, the European Union is strengthening the recycling of resources and gradually reducing the proportion of landfill disposal. Based on the amount of waste landfilled in 1995, it will be reduced to 75% by 2006 and will be Declined to 50%, 2016 will drop to 35% level. In addition, the EU has banned the treatment of organic waste by landfills in order to prevent the emission of harmful gases such as CO2 and methane (CH4) from the landfill that can lead to greenhouse effect, as well as prevent groundwater from being contaminated due to leaching.
Â· Guidelines for composting - The advantages of composting are to reduce the greenhouse effect caused by gases such as emitted CO2 and CH4, increase the content of organic matter in the soil, improve soil physical and chemical properties, promote green manure agriculture, and act as a collector of "carbon" To achieve the purpose of resource reuse, the EU actively guides the composting method and requires that the heavy metals in compost materials must meet relevant standards in order to control the quality of compost and prevent the soil from being contaminated by heavy metals.
3.3 Environmental protection â€œGreen Pointâ€ logo The environmental protection packaging certification system is ISO14000. This environmental management certification is called the â€œgreen passportâ€ approved by the international market. At present, most countries in the world use this as the standard to promote the environmental protection packaging model. The ISO14000 series expressly states that all internationally purchased products (packages) must undergo environmental certification and ecological assessment (LCA) and use environmental labels.
Europe is implementing and improving green certification policies and regulations. Currently, eight countries have begun to implement the green certification system. Products without environmental management certification will be subject to quantity and price restrictions when they are imported.
In 1975, the world's first green packaging "green dot" logo was introduced in Germany. It is a circular pattern composed of green arrows and white arrows. The upper text is composed of German DER GRUNE PUNKT, which means "green dots." The green dot's two-color arrow indicates that the product or package is green and can be recycled and used, meeting the requirements of ecological balance and environmental protection. In 1977, the German government launched the â€œBlue Skyâ€ green environmental protection label and granted products and packaging with green features.
After the use of the "Environmental Mark" in Germany, Canada, Japan, the United States, Australia, Finland, France, Switzerland, Sweden, Norway, Italy, the United Kingdom and other countries have also started to implement environmental labels for product packaging. Such as Canada's "Maple Pigeon", Japan's "Love the Earth", the United States' "Natural Friendly" and Certificate System, China's "Environmental Protection Mark", the European Community's "European Flower", Denmark, Finland, Sweden, Norway, etc. White Swans of the Nordic countries, the "NF" logo of France, the "Eco-label" of Austria, the "Eco-logo" of India, the "Eco-label" of South Korea, the "Green Mark" of Singapore, and the "Environmental Choice of New Zealand" "The "Eco-Products" of Portugal and "Environmental Friendly" of Croatia are all representatives.
Countries around the world have also formulated green product labels, but the names of ecolabels vary from country to country. For example, the â€œEPA markâ€ in the United States, the â€œEV systemâ€ in Canada, the â€œecosystem standardâ€ in Japan, and the â€œNF environmentâ€ in France. Wait. At present, the most successful eco-labels in the world are Germany's BLUE ANGEL and Japan's ECO MARK.
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